Caldwell Parish (French: Paroisse de Caldwell) is a parish located in the U.S. state of Louisiana. As of the 2010 census, the population was 10,132, making it the fifth-least populous parish in Louisiana. The parish seat is Columbia. Most residents live in the country even beyond the three rural communities in the parish.
According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the parish has a total area of 541 square miles (1,400 km), of which 529 square miles (1,370 km) is land and 11 square miles (28 km) (2.1%) is water.
As of the census of 2000, there were 10,560 people, 3,941 households, and 2,817 families residing in the parish. The population density was 20 people per square mile (8/km²). There were 5,035 housing units at an average density of 10 per square mile (4/km²). The racial makeup of the parish was 80.43% White, 17.90% Black or African American, 0.45% Native American, 0.14% Asian, 0.47% from other races, and 0.61% from two or more races. 1.49% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 3,941 households out of which 32.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.40% were married couples living together, 12.60% had a female householder with no husband present, and 28.50% were non-families. 25.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.70% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 2.99.
In the parish the population was spread out with 24.70% under the age of 18, 9.60% from 18 to 24, 28.50% from 25 to 44, 23.30% from 45 to 64, and 13.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 103.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 100.20 males.
The median income for a household in the parish was $26,972, and the median income for a family was $33,653. Males had a median income of $29,677 versus $19,475 for females. The per capita income for the parish was $13,884. About 17.70% of families and 21.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.10% of those under age 18 and 19.50% of those age 65 or over.